Update : November 14, 2022
Dukkha is a Pali word.
There are several forms of Dukkha :
- Dukkha Dukkha
“unsatisfactoriness” associated with Suffering / Misery
- Sukha Dukkha
- “unsatisfactoriness” associated with [Seemingly] Pleasant feelings
- Uppekha Dukkha
“unsatisfactoriness” associated with Equanimity
- Note that the Burmese term “Sin Ye Dhukkha” covers only Dukkha Dukkha.
- Most translators render Dukkha as Suffering.
This led many to believe that Buddhism teaches pessimism.
- Some Sayadaws and Dhamma teachers point out that Buddha was neither an Optimist nor a Pessimist, but that he was a Realist.
- In the Four Noble Truths, he described not only “Suffering” (or Unsatisfactorines), but its Cause and Remedy.
Practicing the Eight-fold Path can lead to Liberation from Samsara (Rounds of Rebirth).
- There is an on-line course which covers Dhammacakka and Anatta Lekkana Suttas.
- It analyzes the two Suttas from several aspects (Psychology and Philosophy).
Categories: D E F