Update : November 14, 2022


Dukkha is a Pali word.

There are several forms of Dukkha :

  • Dukkha Dukkha
    unsatisfactoriness” associated with Suffering / Misery
  • Sukha Dukkha
  • unsatisfactoriness” associated with [Seemingly] Pleasant feelings
  • Uppekha Dukkha
    unsatisfactoriness” associated with Equanimity


  • Note that the Burmese term “Sin Ye Dhukkha” covers only Dukkha Dukkha.
  • Most translators render Dukkha as Suffering.
    This led many to believe that Buddhism teaches pessimism.
  • Some Sayadaws and Dhamma teachers point out that Buddha was neither an Optimist nor a Pessimist, but that he was a Realist.
  • In the Four Noble Truths, he described not only “Suffering” (or Unsatisfactorines), but its Cause and Remedy.
    Practicing the Eight-fold Path can lead to Liberation from Samsara (Rounds of Rebirth).

Online Course

  • There is an on-line course which covers Dhammacakka and Anatta Lekkana Suttas.
  • It analyzes the two Suttas from several aspects (Psychology and Philosophy).

Categories: D E F

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