L : Notes

  • Language
  • Las Vegas
  • Laughter
  • Letters
  • Library
  • Logic



  • There are natural languages (e.g. English, French, German) and programming languages (e.g. Java, Scala, Python).
  • Natural languages are usually Context Sensitive.
    A word often has multiple meanings based on the context.
  • Most programming languages are Context Free.

Chomsky Hierarchy

Noam Chomsky, a famous linguist, defined a hierarchy for languages and grammars.

Courses on Automata Theory and Formal Languages, Programming Languages, Compiling Techniques cover the Chomsky hierarchy and its applications

Basics of a Language

A language has

  • Syntax (rules for forming well defined constructs)
  • Semantics (meaning)
  • Pragmatics (usage)

In our younger days, we had to study English Grammar book (by Wren and Martin) and Burmese Grammar book (by Saya U Pe Maung Tin).

Sample syntax for English :

  • A sentence is a sequence of Subject (S), Verb (V) and Object (O).
  • The cat killed the rat. (Example of active voice using the pattern SVO).
  • The rat was killed by the rat. (Example of passive voice using the pattern OVS).

Myanmar Sar (Burmese Language)

  • Burmese language has a structure similar to the Japanese language.
    Both languages have a structure different to the English language.
  • Sentences in Burmese usually have verbs at the end of a sentence,

Kyundaw Kyaung Thoe Thwa Thee (in Burmese)
is similar in structure to
Watashi was gakko e ikimasu (in Japanese)

Direct (word for word) translation into English would yield
I school to go

The equivalent grammatically correct English sentence would be
I go to school

Las Vegas

Sin City

  • Las Vegas in Nevada is known world wide for its casinos and shows.
  • In the early days, the US did not allow gambling in most states.
    Nevada was an exception.
  • Nickname : “Sin City”.

Las Vegas Monastery

  • Las Vegas has some monasteries including Thai monasteries supported by members of the Royal Family.
  • Sayadaw U Zeya resided at a Thai monastery and rose up in the ranks. Gave dhamma talks in Thai, English, and Burmese.
    Several devotees offered him a monastery.
  • Many year ago U Tin Htoon (A60) gave me a ride from Los Angeles (where I was working on an assignment) to Las Vegas.
    Visited U Kyaw Nyein (C, formerly in charge of PWD in the Ngapali area)
    Headed to the “Ground Breaking Ceremony” for U Zeya’s monastery.
  • In May 2013, several dhamma friends in the Bay Area rented a van to attend “Htee Tin Pwe” of the pagoda inside U Zeya’s monastery compound.
  • Met Ko Sann Tun Ni, who has a successful Sushi business in Las Vegas. He attended CPC course at UCC as an employee of HIC.
    He is one of the Phaya Lugyis.
  • Donated for two Nagas at the Las Vegas Monastery in memory of our parents and in-laws.
    Ah Hmya, Ah Hmya, Ah Hmya
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is las-vegas-monastery.jpg


  • During our younger days, we laughed a lot.
  • We were told “Yee Thaw Thu Thi Ah Thet Shay Ei”.
  • Enjoyed “slapstick comedy” (e.g. Three Stooges, Laurel and Hardy, Jerry Lewis, Norman Wisdom and Keystone Kops.).
  • Spent hours reading comics (e.g. Beano, Dandy, Topper and Beezer) and seeing cartoons (e.g. Tom & Jerry).
  • Read jokes from Reader’s Digest (e.g. Laughter the best medicine, All in a day’s work, Humor in uniform).
  • Attended Ah Nyeints with Lu Shwin Daws teasing the Minthamees and cracking jokes.
  • My classmate D. S. Saluja (Dave Singh, now in Bangkok) would invite me over to his house in Golden Valley to review some subjects. He had a collection of 200+ comics and cartoons. With cartoon breaks and lunch breaks, we often did little with the subject reviews. Dave served as the “Humor Editor” for the Bulletin/Newsletter published by RIT English Department.
  • Over time, we became serious. We could no longer tolerate “stupid jokes”. We felt childish to laugh (without control) for fear that people might judge us as “crazy”.
  • My friends would comment that they rarely see me smile (which is believed to require less effort and muscles than to frown). The exception is in the photos taken with my two life savers / grandchildren.
  • We had a guest lecturer at our Toastmasters Club. She lost her daughter after a stressful marriage and divorce. But, her mother and her friends reminded her the power of laughter (even “fake” laughter) and the destructive nature of stress. In the interactive sessions, there were a few exercises:
    (1) Clap, clap, shout “Hooray” & smile (even fake a smile). Try to do it one (e.g. every morning).
    (2) Instead of exchanging names, do single and double handshake with lots of laughter (the style and volume do not matter). Laughter permeates.
    (3) In groups of twos and threes, take turns telling “What is my stress?” and listening to “How can you lessen or eliminate the stress?”
  • Stress can cause lost opportunities, and broken relationships.
  • A husband (psychoanalyst) and a wife (yoga instructor) in Yoga found (or re-discovered) that “Laughter is the best medicine.”

Dr. Nyunt Wai wrote :

  • The laughter column in Readers’ Digest was under the title “Laughter the Best Medicine”.
  • There’s a Burmese saying ရယ္ ေသာ သူ သည္ အ သက္ ရွည္ ၏ (he who laughs lives long).
  • The recorded jokes of Dat Si and Dat San contained prerecorded collective laughter that followed each joke.
  • If faking laughter has the same effect as the hearty laughter, then it must be also true for faking anger and despair. Impact of this on the actors and actresses (like U Kyal Ni ၾကယ္နီ၊ U Thein Maung Gyi, Kyi Kyi Htay)?


Excerpts from “Letters to the Web Master and Editor” of

Dear ko hla min,
Thank you for your great efforts and let us confess that we enjoy every time whenever we surf on your site even though we did not catch up many of your items actually.
Moreover, your web site also encourages us to overcome as lurkers and finally write a letter to you. We think this is the your first step of your dreams and we are wondering what your next steps will be for alumni.
We guess, in the near future, without any political means, you will add a discussion forum about “how to help and/or save RIT” which is urgently in need for help in a variety of ways while divided into three places: ygn, mdy (near pa-thein-gyi), pyi (near maw-zar) and one to be coming soon: hlaing-thar-yar (near nyaung-done).
We really don’t know how to help RIT, and even though we wish to, we do not have enough power and sources to do so. But we believe that with the aid of your great site, you can organize and establish a forum, and collect funds or something like that and hope, it will go on …
Another thing what we have learned from your pages is that you need to create a space for other RIT subgroups such as Mg yit, nlthein, … under your web site (and not simply treat them as links), even if you want to maintain only ex-rit group. You have to consider the generation gap between us. As we mentioned above, we do not know your sayagyis at all and most of your news do not address us. We think that’s why some young guys want to create separate pages of their own.
Let us stop here. And wishing you a happy millennium,

yours truly,
amthu & hswai

Ko Aung Myat Thu,
Thanks for your suggestions. I’ll request KMZ, our webmaster, to post your letter on our website.
We do realize that there are generation gaps. The alumni in the list span over four decades. Most of my Sayagyis are retired or semi-retired. A lot of my friends are managing RIT/YIT/MIT/YTU, etc.
The website was cooked up as a QA site by KMZ. He is in the process of designing and implementing enhancements to the website. They’ll probably include: (a) forums (or discussion groups) (b) regional news/activities (c) class [year/decade] news (d) database to incorporate associates [people who joined the engineering schools, but for various reasons did not complete their studies].
There are many things that we’d like to do, but KMZ and I both have busy schedules at our day jobs. We’ll try our best to improve the site. Thanks once again for raising the issues.

— Hla Min

Dear webmaster KKMZ, Editor Ko Hla Min and Ko Hla Kyi,
Happy New Millennium!
I am co-founder of RIT, YIT, YTU Student Reunion together with Mg Yit (Maung Maung Win, EC 1993). We do not intend to separate from RIT Alumni International. We want to pass the message within our group which means 90’s batch, and another is just for fun. Furthermore, we use yahoo clubs web only, it is interactive within our friends.
We still believe that we are part of the RIT Alumni International. But, we think that there is no message passing through in Singapore branch net. If you have free time, you can contact us any time and we’d like to contribute whatever we can, for RIT Alumni International Singapore branch.

Ko Hla Kyi,
This is the our view for RIT alumni International and Singapore branch. We don’t have any other ideas for separation. Our conscience is clear. Our family (group of 90’s) is about 20 persons in Singapore.

With Metta,
Wynn Khai Htay (M93)

I graduated from RIT in 1978 from Civil Engg. I am keen to contact with friends and colleagues from civil and other departments. Currently, I am living in NZ, and working for a local government as asset management engineer for road infrastructures. Please send some of your addresses of alumni.

Indra Gyawali (C78)

***** New Zealand alumni, please contact Indra if you see this message.

I graduated from RIT in the year 1970 with Civil Engineering. I am looking to my friends who were away from our Golden Land of Myanmar since 1970 and afterwards. Let me tell you something about myself. I retired from PWD Myanmar in 1993 and joined Louis Berger International, Inc. (USA) since that time. My first assignment was in Bangladesh, working for World Bank Loan Project. After that I was in Thailand in Expressway Construction Project from Bangkok to Pataya. Then I was in Philippines constructing a huge Amphitheatre for former President Mr. Ramos in former American Clark Air Base. At present I am in India with the same Louis Berger Company working for a World Bank Loan National Highway Project and I will be here for another 18 months.
When I saw this web site I was happy to know something about my former Professor, Lecturers and Tutors and some of my class mate from 1970 Batch. If somebody from 1970 Batch has found out my newsletter please contact me. Especially I want to get contact with Patrick Fong, Albert, Aung Myint, Ko Zaw Win, Aung Naing Tun, Ko Htay Aung. All my colleagues are Civil Engineering Students passed in 1970.

Best Regards,
Tha Kyaw Zan (C70)

***** OK, the alumni class of Civil 1970, please contact Ko Tha Kyaw Zan if you happen to see this message.

I attended Rangoon University from 1953 thru 1959. I worked for Burma Unilever Ltd. 1959 – 1967 as Engineering Manager and I came to United States in 1967, changed my major to civil/ structural engineering and served County of Los Angeles, Building and Safety Division for over 31 years. Recently I retired from the county service as District Building and Safety Engineer (in March 1999). I am married and my wife’s name is Yvonne Htway. We have three grown-up children.
Khet Khet Htway Burger, Leipzig, Germany
Tin Htway Jr., West Hills, California,
Zin Maung Htway, Honolulu, Hawaii.

U Tin Htway,

***** Thank you for your feedback. I am surprised and moved by your feedback, as you know you are one of the senior alumni in our database. We would like to hear more from you, please write us short notes and articles on your engineering experiences both back in Burma and in US. We also have couple of senior alumni, who work or used to work for either City or County of LA. I hope to hear from you soon.
With Metta
Khin Maung Zaw

Dear K.Khin Maung Zaw/ K. Hla Min:
It is gratifying to see your Website has taken shape to a level that you two can be proud of, in such a short period. Your efforts would be well remembered and appreciated for years to come.
This Website has just begun to take shape and is getting to the point where all ex-RIT’s can benefit from. My proposal, which you may already have done, is to solicit short notes from each and every one of our ex-faculty members. Like for example, I am sure Dr. Freddy Ba Hli and Dr. U Aung Gyi, must have done some thing exemplary accomplishments to have deserved such a celebrity status in the engineering academia in Myanmar. The exemplary accomplishments can be used as model for the future generations. A good role model is very hard to come by. Most of our ex-faculty members are the cream of the crop and we should feel fortunate, if we all can benefit from their experiences. Their words of wisdom are invaluable and I don’t think we should let it withered away. Let us get their experiences and let us build upon them to improve ourselves. If we can do that your website can say we have serves the needs of the many, old and young ex’s and all RIT’s.
I am sure if we solicit from them, they would be happy to contribute their experiences or words of wisdom, to your website. Your Website is just as clean as an Irish Spring Soap, free of all politics and commercials too. The new improved format looks just great, I can see there is a continuous improvement being made to your website.

Maung Paw, USA. Date Wed Aug 25 1999, 1:52 PM
Class of 1958, Electrical

****** Saya U Htin Paw, I have forwarded your letter to Saya Dr. F Ba Hli and Saya Dr. Aung Gyi. (KMZ)

This web site is a great effort much appreciated I am sure, by all graduates and faculty of RIT. We all have very fond memories of our student days at RIT and we feel young again whenever we meet our old friends. After visiting this site, I felt so much better and proud that I am a graduate of RIT.
We have crossed many rivers and bridges in our lives and treasured many a fond memory but none can compare the good times that I had in my RIT student days.
Thanks again to Ko Hla Min, Ko Khin Maung Zaw & all others who have devoted their precious time to bring us all in togetherness again with this website.

Ko Henry Thet Tun, Sydney, Australia. Date Wed Aug 18 19:18:47 1999
Class of 1975, Mechanical

****** Thanks Ko Henry for your feedback. Send us suggestions/comments/ideas to make this website useful, interesting, and informational to all ex-Faculty and Alumni.

Dear Web Master and Editor,
After long years, I have now finally managed to find some of my old friends and Sayas from our RIT in your website. Many thanks to you. You have done a very good job and hope that we could keep this website going on, in order to keep in touch with all of our RIT Alumni especially who are living overseas. Please let me know how to register my name in your Alumni list so that my other friends could be able to contact me as well.
My hello to Saya U Tin Htut (Mech., USA) Saya Dr. Tin Win (Mech., Texas), and Saya U Tu Myint (Mech., Singapore), I was one of your student at class of 1973 (Mechanical final year), and my elder brother L Than Myint (Mechanical and ex-RUBC) is also a good friend of yours as well. Now he is living in Bangkok, Thailand. I am now working at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), in UK, a research associate in the Department of Chemical Engineering.
Thanks again to the web editors for marvelous job.
Hope to hear some news from my old friends of class 1973 (mechanical).

Dr. L Sein Myint, Research Associate, Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK. Date 17/8/99, 16:10 PM (GMT)
Class of 1973; Mechanical

***** Ko Lawrence, we are glad to hear that you are now in contact with your Sayas and old friends through this website. We have forwarded your message to the Sayas you’ve mentioned in your message.

Dear Ko Hla Min and Ko Khin Maung Zaw,
Congratulations on your marvelous work done on I am very impressed and proud of your web page, and have given the good news to our friends at B.A.S.E.S. (Burmese American Science and Engineering Society).
We had the BASES, gathering and Dinner hosted by U Khin Maung Lay on July 31, 1999. It was a very pleasant evening attended by over 170 guests. This was the first time for BASES to have a Dinner, although we usually met in the past for Lunch and Picnics. BASES is a professional and educational organization. A university degree is not even required, and is for professionals or students in office or industry. We have now doctors, dentists and accountants, etc although we started primarily for scientists and engineers.
We will keep you posted on our events, and are welcome to drop by to visit us when you are in Los Angeles.
Congratulations again on your splendid job on

U Tin Htut, Los Angeles, USA, Date : Saturday, August 14, 1999 12:07 PM
Class of 1959, Mechanical (ex-Faculty)

Dear Ko Johnny,
Many thanks for those emailed-newsletters before the site was officially launched.
The site looks great and professional. Based on my own experience I can appreciate how much time and effort Ko KMZ must have put in, in single-handedly cooking up a QA website.
Thanks to all the Sayas and collegues who came up with this brilliant idea!

With best regards,
Dennis Mackey (a) (Kyaw Thu), New Zealand, Date : Saturday, August 14, 1999 4:47 AM
Class of 1973, Civil

***** Thanks for your beautiful letter.

Dear Johnny (Ko Hla Min) and Ko Khin Maung Zaw,
Many thanks for your message. I have visited the RIT web site. My congratulations on an excellent job. Keep up the good work. I just hope that one day Burma will be able to use the services of such excellent and talented engineers as you all are proving to be in the States. I have been slowly disseminating all the material in the web site and shall get in touch as soon as possible. Meanwhile, if there is anything I can do in the UK regarding our Alumni, do give me a call.

Regards, Date : Friday 13 August 1999 01:23
Ko Norman (Myint Khine – C63)

Dear Ko Hla Min:
Thank you again, your website has enables me to re found my long lost nephew, Ko Toung (Tom Liu). He said he was your classmate. We lost contact since 1971. Thank you for speeding up this rediscovery.
Maung Paw (Saya U Htin Paw), Date : 08/11/99

Ko Hla Min,
Thanks for the speedy re-discovery as described by Saya Htin Paw. Saya Gadaw Alice left for London on last Saturday (8/7/99). We picked up Saya Paing and had a good time at Foxwoods casino. We drove to Ko TAG’s on Monday and again had a very good time together. We missed you and hoped you were there.
Next time when you come to the east coast, three of us should get together again. At least, please visit us.

Tom Liu (a) Ko Toung, Date : 08/11/99

***** We are glad to know that some speedy reunions between long lost relatives have taken place.

Dear Ko Hla Min and Ko Khin Maung Zaw:
First and foremost my gratitude to both of you for initiating the email exchange and later bringing about the RIT Alumni website, all in a very brief time, to bring the ex-Faculty staff and graduates back together as one big family – the way we experienced it back then.
Congratulations for a job well done. Compilation of the alumni database and the organization of the website are impressive achievements realizing that the two of you worked single-handedly to bring them about. We are appreciative of your contributions to and the sacrifices of personal time you made for the upliftment of the RIT Alumni and the Burmese Engineering community residing abroad.
From among the contributors, I would personally like to mention Saya U Soe Paing, Saya U Htin Paw and Mr. Aw Taik Moh. U Soe Paing for his reminiscence on RIT Staff vs. Students soccer games. U Htin Paw for sharing his spiritual odyssey. Mr. Aw Taik Moh for vivid accounts of his sojourn at BOC College of Engineering, in A Land Faraway and at A Time Not Too Long Ago.
To all our fellow ex-Faculty and fellow Graduates of BOC College of Engineering & Mining, Rangoon University Faculty of Engineering, and the Rangoon Institute of Technology, where ever you are, let us join together and make this endeavor started by Ko Hla Min and Ko Khin Maung Zaw a resounding success.

On behalf of the San Francisco Bay Area Group,
Saya Allen Htay (C58), Date : Thursday, August 12, 1999 1:37 AM

***** The web site would not have been possible without the numerous people, notably the class representatives and the area representatives, who asked their friends and colleagues to participate in the worthy cause — a grand reunion. Thanks to all those who found the time and energy to write short notes and letters, to post messages on the bulletin board, to submit photos, to provide feedback, to write encouraging words in our guest book, and last but not the least, to visit and revisit our web site.

We visited the Alumni Website for RIT after hearing it from U Myint Swe and Daw San San. It gives us such a delightful feeling as if we are back visiting our old school, virtually, after a long absence of almost a quarter of a century. We saw a lot of our old friends and colleagues there. We could virtually hear some of them talking and laughing too. We are glad that someone came up with such a magnificent idea for keeping us informed and eventually connected. Even more commendable are people who have invested their time and hard work to
make it a reality. The design of the web site is great.
We would like to make a correction and complete our listing on the alumni list: Please add Suzie Lin (aka Suzie Yea) class of 74, EP to the list. Please correct the spelling of the last name for Kuensan Lim listed to LIN.
We would like to make our address, phone number and e-mail address available to all of our friends.

Kuensan & Suzie Lin (a) Suzie Yea, Sugarland, Texas, USA, Date : 8/10/99 12:57PM
class of ChE66 & EP74

***** Gee, another letter right from the heart. We appreciate it. Credit for the idea on the Website should be given to Ko Hla Min (EC69) and Saya U Soe Paing (Electrical).

It’s very interesting every time to read various guest book messages, feedback letters, and articles as well as names of Sayas and Alumni. It reminded me of so many years of memories as I used to live and grow up in the RIT Campus for about 20+ years (from as far as I remember to 1983) and also happened to study there. I hope to see more sticky pages to come along in the future. I should be writing something about my life in and around RIT, shouldn’t I?

Victor Aung (a) Ko Htay Aung, Australia, Date : 8/9/99
Class of 1980, Electronics

***** We look forward to seeing articles from you.

Today I saw your email about alumni web site. I straight away opened the page. I greatly appreciate your efforts to form this page and alumni [database]. I was touched by the pictures of sayas and old friends. I got strange feelings and tears come out. Time passed. Many things had changed. People are/were aging day by day, but the fact that we were once RIT students will never change.

Swe Tin, Singapore, Date : 8/7/99 10:05:52 PM (ET)
Class of 1977, Electronics

***** Needless to say, we are very touched by letters like this one.

This is a very interesting web site which I learned from my classmate Ko Toung. My wife and I both enjoy this web site very much. Whoever in making this web site available has done an excellent job.
Keep up the good job. Thanks.

John Lee (a) U Tin Myint, Union City, California, USA, Date : Aug 06 07:44:53 1999
Class of 1969, Mech

Good day KMZ, its me Thantsin well known as Ko Cho in NZ. This is my first visit to and am really impressed. My wife Theingi Myint said no wonder its your creation. You might remember her at Computer Center. When I saw RIT entrance, there are heaps of unforgettable things especially ShaySaung Workshop, good drinking times with Mogoe Group, and Saya Gyis.

Thantsin (Ko Cho), New Zealand, Date : 8/2/99 2:47 PM
Class of 1976, Mechanical

***** Thank you for your kind remarks, I cannot take the credit myself, this is a team effort, so many Sayas and colleagues deserve the credit as well.

I was a 1982 graduate from R.I.T majoring in Mechanical and I am living in New Jersey Area. Please add my eMail address in mailing list.

Danny H-N Lin, USA, Date : 7/31/99 5:43:13 PM (ET)

I was a teacher of Engineering Geology Department. I got scholarship from Germany. I am happy to contact my Institute again.

Daw War War Min Schaefer, Germany, Date : 7/28/99 4:17:43 PM (ET)

Thank you for putting my father’s name under “Gone but not forgotten” category. As for the class photo, our family has a few group photos. I told my mom to get a copy and to send it to me. When I receive these photos, I’ll scan it and send it to you. Once again, thank you for everything.

Kyawswa, Singapore, Date : Monday, July 26, 1999 8:39 PM

Ko Hla Min
Thanks for forwarding mails to me from RIT folks. It’s real nice to recall some of the old memories. Even my wife and kids couldn’t recognize me in the picture of RIT students/staff. Thanks

Uttam, USA, Date : Wednesday, July 21, 1999 8:02 AM

Hi Ko Khin Maung Zaw,
Congratulations for your splendid work. It all started with Ko Hla Min, Ko Myat Htoo, and other enthusiastic RIT Alumni.
I’m sure that RIT Website will be welcome and visited by many many, more……., because during my tenure of service at Faculty of Engineering (BOC College and then the Lake-Khone) (1957 to 1961) and the Department of Civil Engineering ( BIT and then RIT )(1961 to 1988,……..and then when the Institute was closed down, disbanded, and renamed, etc.), the number of Civil Graduates is approximately 4000, not to mention other Major Graduates.
I felt as if I am celebrating a “grand electronic reunion” with my colleagues and my pupils. Your efforts are highly commendable. Please keep up the good work. I would like to point out that my name is missing in the Faculty List. I also notice that Madan Chand is Civil Major.

Saya U Min Wun, USA, Date : July 21, 1999 8:02 AM

Editor’s notes:
Some are GBNF. Some have retired and/or relocated. The letters show how sayas and alumni responded to the creation and maintenance of Most were excited to get reconnected (virtually and physically) after many years.
Those were the days before the social media and smart devices.


Private Library

Before the advent of Internet, it requires time, money and effort even to have a small but decent library.

  • My parents and uncles have their personal libraries. Collectively, we have access to
  • encyclopedias (such as Encyclopedia Britannica, Pear’s Cyclopedia and Myanmar Swel Sone Kyan)
  • dictionaries (various sizes and versions of Oxford English Dictionary, Chamber’s Dictionary, U Tun Nyein Dictionary)
  • and books (on science, technology, religion, history, fine arts, languages, literature, astrology, astronomy, palmistry, numerology, cards, games. music, biographies, public speaking, humor, comics, cartoons, yoga, dhamma books and tapes).

SPHS Library

  • At St. Paul’s High School (SPHS), there were class libraries as well as the School librarian. I had to volunteer for two different occasions.
  • I was admitted to IV(D) at SPHS. There was a theory that students who did not join SPHS from KG could/should be “tested” by placing them in Section (D) instead of the “elite” Section (A). Dr. Thane Oke Kyaw Myint had a similar experience. Only after “proving our worth” for four years, we were finally transferred to Section (A) of VIII Standard.
  • Brother Canice picked me from among the IV standard students to volunteer at the School Library. That was my first hands on experience working with a Librarian.
  • In High School, we had a Class Library. Brother Austin, our teacher for English and “Morals and Manners”, would allow us to borrow books not only from the Class Library but also from the School Library (where he served as a Librarian). We were asked to review the book that we had borrowed. Brother Austin would also reward those who do well in the tests with a book from the Class Library. I won “History and Atlas of North America”.

Libraries and Book Clubs

  • Occasionally, we would visit the libraries at British Council and USIS.
  • As a member of the Burma Research Society (BRS) and the Sar Pay Beik Man Book Club, I received selected publications.

USIS Library

Mr. Hall

  • In July 1969, I wrote a poem “Men on the Moon”. My mentor Ashin Ananda, who is the Buddhist Archbishop of Latvia and a Laureate Poet, submitted my poem to the Guardian newspaper and to Mr. Hall, an officer with USIS/USIA. The poem was sent to NASA.
  • Mr. Hall registered me as a user of USIS publications (Lin Yaung Chi and monthly or bi-monthly translations).

Daw Rita Tin Aung

  • Librarian for USIS
  • Provided access to UCC staff.
  • She would also photocopy articles that we requested.

NIU Library

  • Daw May Kyi Win (GBNF), Assistant Librarian for the Central Library, took courses at UCC. She won a DV (Diversity Visa) to migrate to the US. She worked at NIU (Northern Illinois University), which has an “Asian Collection”. She maintained the “Burma” section of that collection.
  • Saya Dr. Than Tun wrote some of his books during his stay at NIU.
  • Saya U Saw Tun (former Head of RIT Burmese Department) was active with RIT Ah Nyu Pyinna Athin (Saya U Moe Aung and team). For a commemorative Swel Daw Yeik Sar Saung, he recounted how he and Saya U Moe Aung were summoned to the Ministry and told to “stop” Swel Daw Yeik troupe activities. Saya was and may be still at NIU teaching and researching Burmese.
  • Ko Wunna Ko Ko, designer of the second RIT web site, studied and also worked as a research associate at NIU. He is an expert of NLP (Natural Language Processing).

Rangoon University Central Library (RUCL)

The Chief Librarians of RUCL include

  • “K” (BBS U Khin Zaw)
  • “Zawgyi” (U Thein Han)
  • U Thaw Kaung

Burma Research Society Publications

I joined Burma Research Society (BRS) as a student member. I would go to the RUCL every three or six months to pick up my copy of the BRS journal. The journal uses transcription for the Burmese words.

Social Science Library and Faculty

While I was still a high school student, my cousin uncle Saya U Than Lwin (Eric, GBNF) took me to the Social Science Library. He was a Lecturer in the Economics Department and also served as Librarian for the Social Science Library. I also met Saya Dr. Maung Shein, Saya Dr. Khin Maung Kyawe and several sayas, who took rides in my uncle’s car. My uncle introduced me to Saya Dr. Than Tun (History, GBNF) at the Recreation Center.

Faculty of Engineering Library

Saya Dr. Maung Maung Kha, then Interim Dean of Engineering, requested Saya U Ba Than to help the engineering library by compiling and/or recommending journals and text books.

RIT Library

  • Daw Myint Myint Khin (Assistant Librarian at Social Science) became the Librarian at RIT.
  • Ko Mya, Assistant Librarian at RIT, was friendly and helped the students looking for journals.
  • The Library later relocated to a building near (A) Block.

YTU Library

  • Due to design and maintenance, the YTU Library deteriorated.
  • It would not qualify for the Accreditation of YTU.
  • Several sayas and alumni initiated the “YTU Library Modernization” project to fulfill a requirement of the accreditation of their alma mater.
    Donors — young and old, far and near, alumni and well-wishers — displayed their metta and cetana.
    Overcoming adversaries, the first phase of the project has completed.
  • Future phases will address issues such as e-library and and archives of “Written and Oral History”.

Logic Systems

Two-valued Logic (2-VL)

It is the most commonly used logic system.

There are Logical Constants : False and True (which are often expressed as 0 and 1)

There are 16 Logical Functions including AND, OR, NOT, XOR.

Boolean Algebra is named after George Boole (Cambridge), author of “Laws of Thought”

Switching Circuit Theory : Claude Shanon (MIT) proposed the use of logic in the design and implementation of switching circuits.

Early digital computers have ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit).

Most Programming Languages support Logical Operators.

Three Valued Logic (3-VL)

Sample use : Yes, No, DNK (Do Not Know)

There are three Logical Constants : 0, 1, 2

The Logical Operators are defined by truth tables.

For two logic variables, there are 9 possible combinations
(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2)

Example : MAX (for Maximum)
MIN (for Minimum)

Fuzzy Set

Zadeh (Stanford) proposed fuzziness as a “degree of membership in a set”.

Applications of Fuzzy Set are found in appliances such as Washers and Dryers.

Categories: Notes

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