C : Notes

  • Calendars (See Post)
  • Calendars, Eras and New Year (See Post)
  • Card Games
  • Categories
  • Cetasika / Mental States
  • Checkers
  • Chess
  • Color
  • Computer History Museum (See Post)
  • Countdown (See Post)
  • Currency (See Post)
  • Burmese Currency (See Post)

Card Games

There are many card games. There are books describing the rules of the games. Some provide analysis of selected card games (e.g. from Bridge tournament).

Card games may need one, two or more (e.g. four) decks.

Based on the card game, a card may have a face value.

Some games are known by different names.

e.g. Black Jack (Vingt-e-un or Twenty One)


  • My cousins and their friends used to play Bridge on weekends
  • For some time, I played Bridge with my uncle and two cousins
  • At most Senior Centers, the members can play Bridge
  • Ivan Lee (Khin Maung Oo, M69) plays competitive Bridge.
    Earned a Life time Gold in Bridge.


In a bidding convention for Bridge, an Ace is considered as having a value of 4 points, King as 3 points, Queen as 2 points and Jack as 1 point. A deck has a value of 40 points. One the average, each player gets 10 points. For the normal distribution of cards, a player needs 11 or more points to open a bid and the partner needs 6 or more points to respond to the bid. They need 26 or more points to bid for a game, and 36 or more points to bid for a slam. For abnormal distributions (e.g. one player has 7 or more cards in a suit, or void in one suit), the point system may be relaxed.


Solitaire is a collection of card games that one can play alone for fun or for challenge (based on points or elapsed time). Common members of Solitaire are

  • Klondike
  • Free Cell
  • Spider
  • Pyramid
  • Tri-Heap

I spent lots of time playing to earn badges (Bronze, Silver, Gold, Diamond and “Perfect”) for several months. It was effectively substituted by writing posts and sharing knowledge and experience.

Other Card Games

  • Canasta
  • Pinochle
  • Black Jack (Twenty One, Vinght-e-un)
  • Hollywood
  • Koe Mee
  • Shan Koe Mee
  • Bu Gyee
  • Poker
  • Show (Ta Chutt Hmauk)



There are albums for A – Z (and more).


Some articles were published in

  • BAPS Newsletter
  • Dhammananda Newsletter
  • Guardian
  • Moe Ma Ka
  • RIT Alumni International Newsletter
  • Swel Daw Yeik Magazine
  • Swel Daw Yeik Sar Saung


Several books were received as presents from the

  • authors
  • publishers


  • Some were pioneers in the Medical field in Burma / Myanmar
  • Some are my former classmates and schoolmates

GBNF / Gone But Not Forgotten

Some lists are maintained by the classes :

  • Class of 69
  • Class of 70
  • Class of 71
  • Class of 72

Some lists need to be updated :

  • RIT Alumni
  • RIT Sayas
  • RIT Spouses
  • UCC Alumni
  • UCC Sayas
  • UCC Spouses


  • Full names
  • Meaning of names
  • Monk names
  • Partial names
  • Pen names


  • Outstanding Burmans
  • Some Firsts in the History of Burma


  • Burmese / Myanmar
  • English (Originals and selected translations)

RIT / Rangoon Institute of Technology

  • RIT is a generic term to represent my alma mater and all engineering schools that preceded it and succeeded it
  • RIT Alumni
  • RIT Sayas
  • RIT Sports


  • Primary school
  • Middle school
  • High school
  • University
  • UCC, DCS and ICST


  • Arts
  • Disciplines
  • Science
  • Social Science

SDYF / Swel Daw Yeik Foundation

  • Founded in 2013 to provide help to the sayas and alumni of RIT (since there was no official Alumni Association at the time)
  • Provides Health Care to eligible sayas and sayamas
  • Activities


  • Disciplines
  • Contests / Events

SPZP / Saya Pu Zaw Pwe

  • SPZP is a tradition that is unique to Burma/Myanmar
  • SPZP-2000
  • SPZP-2002
  • SPZP-2004
  • SPZP-2007
  • SPZP-2010
  • SPZP-2012
  • SPZP-2016


  • Letters
  • Numbers and Numerals
  • Miscellaneous Symbols

Terms and Concepts

  • Terms used in my posts
  • A : Terms and Concepts
  • Z : Terms and Concepts

UCC / Universities’ Computer Center

  • UCC is a generic term to represent my alma mater and all Computer Science and Technology schools that succeeded it
  • Memories of UCC
  • UCC Founders
  • UCC Sayas
  • UCC Staff
  • UCC Students


  • Visit to Australia
  • Visit to Canada
  • Visit to Malaysia
  • Visit to Myanmar
  • Visit to Singapore
  • Visit to States in the USA
  • Visit to UK
  • Selected events



  • There is a spectrum of colors.
  • Selected points are given labels.
  • Some simplify by saying “White is the presence of all colors. Black is the absence. “


We had mnemonics “VIBGYOR” to remember the colors of a rainbow : Violet, Indigo, Blue,Green, Yellow, Orange and Red.

Traffic light

  • Traffic lights use three colors : Red, Yellow (or Amber) and Red.
  • A friend, who is Color Blind, drives by noting the position of the light being On.
  • One night, with the electricity cut off, the police was using two colored “Ye Khe Chaung” lights. My friend could not decide whether to stop or go.


  • The early resistors were color coded.
  • Some engineers, who are Color Blind, use meters to determine the values. “If there is a will, there is a way.”

Color Model

The early TVs and cameras use the Positive (or Additive) Color Model (also known as RGB). Red, Green and Blue are known as the Primary colors. An arbitrary color can be derived from the three Primary colors.

The early printing presses use the Subtractive Color Model (also known as CYMB). Cyan, Yellow, Magenta and Black are the Primary colors.

An alternative model uses Hue and Saturation.

Dr. Kyaw Tint wrote :

We are still using RGB subpixels to form a tiny pixel of flat panel display.

Pixel sizes that are unresolvable by naked eyes are in the so called Retina Display screens.

Cetasika / Mental States

All types of cetasikas are able to arise only be depending on Citta (consciousness).

There are 52 types. They are classified into three groups.

(1) Annasamana : Common to others : 13 types

Universal annasamana : associates with all cittas : 7 types

Contact, Feeling, Perception, Motivation, One-pointedness, Faculty of mental life, Attention

Particular annasmana : associates with some cittas : 6 types

Initial application, Sustained application, Decision, Effort, Joy, Wish to do

(2) Akusla : Immoral mental state : 14 types

Ignorance, Shamelessness, Fearlessness, Restlessness, Attachment, Wrong view, Hatred (fear), Envy, Stinginess, Remorse, Sloth, Torpor, Doubt

(3) Sobhana : mental state with virtue : 25 types

Mental states that are common to all types of sobhana citta : 19 types

Faith, Mindfulness, Moral shame, Moral dread, Non-attachment, Non-hatred, Equanimity, Tranquility of mental factors, Tranquility of mind, Lightness of mental factors, Lightness of mind, Pliancy of mental factors, Pliancy of mind, Adaptability of mental factors, Adaptability of mind, Proficiency of mental factors, Proficiency of mind, Rectitude of mental factors, Rectitude of mind

Mental state that abstains from evil speech, action, and livelihood : 3 types

Right speech, Right action, Right livelihood

Mental state that has limitless objects on which one must be practiced : 2 types

Compassion, Sympathetic joy

Mental state that realizes an object : 1 type

Faculty of wisdom

For details, read the books by Sayadaw U Silanandabhivamsa, Sayadaw Dr. Nandamalabivamsa, and Saya Dr. Mehm Tin Mon.


  • Checkers is a board game.
  • Played on a 8×8 board containing 32 white and 32 black squares.
  • Customary to use only the black squares.
  • Each player has 12 pieces (of an assigned color).
    Pieces can only move one step forward.
    Exception is when a piece reaches the other player’s end and is promoted to a “king”.
  • A game ends when all the pieces of one player has been captured by the opponent.
  • A game may also end in a tie (or draw).

Kyar (Burmese name for Checkers)

  • The Burmese call the game “Kyar” or “Set Hnit Kaung Kyar“.
  • In Mandalay, there was a champion player known as “Kyar Bayin” (King of Checkers).
  • “Kyar” Ba Nyein — a cousin uncle of Saya Allen Htay (C58) — was a mentee of the Mandalay “Kyar Bayin”.
    “Kyar” Ba Nyien was also a National Boxing Champion.
    Since “Kyar” also means tiger, he used the Tiger as a symbol for his boxing club, which trained boxers to become National Boxing Champions.
    Kyar Ba Nyein was a Boxing Champion and a promoter of Burmese Boxing and Martial Arts
  • Ludu Daw Ah Mar wrote a book “Mandalay Thar and Mandalay Thu” about distinguished residents of Mandalay. The book has a chapter on Kyar Ba Nyein.


  • The player who loses all the pieces win.
  • It is not trivial to win.


  • There is also a trick used on novices.
  • A novice is given a choice to have 12 pieces or one piece.
  • The rules are “The player with 12 pieces make the first move. The one who loses all the pieces win.”

Checkers program

  • Arthur Samuel (IBM) was not a renowned Checkers player, but he developed a system (algorithm and data base) to play against human opponents (with rising level of competence).
    His program remembered “bad” moves and “good” moves.
    Over time, the program was able to beat a reasonably good Checkers player.
  • It was one of the early projects for Artificial Intelligence (AI).


The game of Chess might have been invented for some rudimentary training of ancient military personnel / generals.


The game of Chess is more complex than the game of Checkers in the sense that

  • there are more possible moves
  • some games could take up a lot of time
  • a reasonably good memory and technique are needed to beat strong opponents.

Championship level chess uses a clock and rules to ensure that a game ends within the specified period.

Some tournaments support “lightning move Chess”.

Board and Pieces

Standard Chess is played by two players on an 8 x 8 Chess Board (with 32 white squares and 32 black squares).

There are two sets of 16 pieces.
Each set (owned by a player) has

  • King — the game is lost is when it is check-mated
  • Queen (generally worth 8 pawns)
  • Two Rooks (or Castles, each worth 5 pawns)
  • Two Bishops (each worth 3 pawns)
  • Two Knights (each worth 3 pawns)
  • Eight Pawns — it can get promoted to any piece (usually a Queen) if it reaches the other end of the board successfully

Each player has 8 power pieces (King, Queen, two Rooks, two Bishops and two Knights) and 8 pawns.

The player, who owns the White pieces, starts the game and has some advantages over the opponent.


There are variations in the Chess games played by the Chinese and the Burmese.

Chess Sets

  • Had three Chess sets.
  • Most sets that were available from stores were made of plastic.
    My parents bought me a regular Chess set with Plastic pieces.
  • Saya U Maung Maung Gyi (High School Teacher of my father), gave me a Chess Set with leaded wooden pieces.
  • Received a Pocket Chess set from my elder brother Ko Sein Htoon (M63, Past Captain and RUBC Gold) when he returned from Colombo, Ceylon after competing in the 1960 ARAE.
    He was the cox of the RUBC team which won the Willingdon Trophy for Coxed Fours.

Saya Dawson and YMCA Chess

  • Saya Dawson, who taught Mathematics at SPHS before our time, opened his own Tuition school.
  • He was Burma Chess Champion.
  • He was a friend of my cousin uncle Dr. Aung Nyein who played Chess regularly at YMCA.
  • Saya Dawson enrolled me in a Chess tournament at YMCA.
    I showed up at YMCA.
    I got two walk overs, because the elder players had no incentive playing against a Char Taik..
    In the opening round, my 40+ year old opponent refused to play against a Char Taik.
    In the next round, my 30+ year old opponent also conceded the game without playing.
    My father told me that I was spoiling the tournament and asked me to withdraw from the tournament,

Follow up

In my Computer Science studies, we had to code “Eight Queens” problem and the “Knight’s Tour”.

I followed some early Chess Championship games
(a) human versus human (e.g. Bobby Fischer, Boris Sparssky)
(b) computer versus computer (e.g. Belle, Deep Thought)
(c) computer versus human (e.g. Deep Blue, Gary Kasparov)

Chess Books

Most Chess experts have Chess books specializing in

  • Opening
  • Middle
  • End game.

Some also read Chess Puzzles (e.g. White mates in xxx moves, where xxx is typically two or three) and Chess Columns (e.g. analysis of Chess games).

My uncle also followed Chess Columns and the analysis of Championship games.

I did not have time and energy to study Chess literature.

RIT Chess

  • Ko Aung Than (EE) spent time with Chess and Cards more than classes and had to leave RIT before graduation.
  • He co-founded the RIT Chess Club with Ko Maung Maung, Ko Thet Lwin (Henry) and the visiting Soviet lecturers.

Computer Chess

Although I stopped playing chess regularly, I followed the “History of Computer Chess” starting with the Professor Don Michie’s wager with David Levy. The professor was a pioneer in Machine Intelligence at the University of Edinburgh and was optimistic about the computer’s capability to play championship level Chess. David Levy — a programmer and Master level Chess player — wagered a year’s salary if a computer program could beat him within a decade.

David Levy won the bet.

The challenge inspired Computer Scientists (such as Ken Thompson, co-designer of Unix) to develop software and specialized software to play Chess.

It took several decades before a computer could beat a reasonably good Chess player, and ultimately beat the World Champion.

Deep Thought (at CMU)

Deep Thought” was developed at Carnegie Mellon University by a designer of special purpose chip for multi-layer pruning. With the help of four other Ph.D. students (two of whom are excellent Chess players), Deep Thought was taught to learn and play against Top Chess Programs. It won the Championship for Computer Chess hosted by ACM.

Deep Blue (at IBM)

IBM hired three of the Ph.D graduates (that worked on the “Deep Thought” project) to design and develop “Deep Blue” with the help of Grand Masters. The objective was to beat Gary Kasparov (then World Champion) in a Best-of-five challenge match. Deep Blue lost on the first encounter.

In a rematch of another Best-of-five series, “Deep Blue” succeeded to beat Kasparov. Per saying, “To err is human”, Kasparov made a slight mistake, and “Deep Blue” relentlessly attacked and won the game and the series. IBM “retired” Deep Blue.

Watson (at IBM)

The hardware and software technology used for Deep Blue were enhanced to develop Watson (and the variants) for

  • beating the Jeopardy (TV game) champion
  • assisting medical doctors in training and diagnosis
  • incorporating AI in IBM projects.

Computer Chess Exhibit (at CHM)

The Computer History Museum on Shoreline, Mountain View, California, US had an exhibit on the History of Computer Chess.

I attended a panel discussion on ‘Computer Chess”. The panelists include

  • Member[s] of Deep Blue
  • Monty Newborn (Organizer of ACM tournaments for Computer Chess)
  • Professor Edward Feigenbaum (Stanford University, Pioneer in Computer Expert Systems)

Categories: Notes

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