S – Z

Updated : August 5, 2019

  • Safety
  • Scholarship
  • Security
  • Senior
  • So Ka Yay Tee
  • Speech
  • SPHS
  • Statistics
  • Stipend
  • Tag
  • Thesaurus
  • Tie
  • Time
  • Trust
  • Uniform
  • Used in my posts
  • Yadaya



  • Most countries have a Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • They perform tests before certifying if a food or drug is safe to take.


  • Some departments to monitor if tap water is safe to drink.
  • Some check if the claims for the “bottled water” are true.


Over the years, I have read “recall” notices.

  • Beef and chicken products that are contaminated
  • Pickled tea leaves that have been prepared using “unsafe” dyes and chemicals
  • Toys that are unsafe for children


  • During a visit to Yangon, a friend took me to his favorite restaurant. He handed to the Chef the oil bottle that he had brought from home to be used in preparing the dishes.
  • May be our immune system has degraded over time.
  • May be commercial greed has overtaken the health concerns.
  • I hope that there are no malpractices in the preparation of food (e.g. ah thoke, ah kyaw, …).


Collegiate Scholarships were given to eligible Matriculates. Sayagyi U Ba Than was an early Collegiate Scholarship holder.

The eligibility rules vary over the years.

In the early days, the scholarship holders get 60 Kyats a month.

In our days, the scholarship holders get 75 Kyats per month, but the net was still 60 Kyats (since the tuition fees was 15 Kyats per month).

In the early 50’s, the top 25 students were awarded Collegiate Scholarship.

In the later years (e.g. 1960), the top 100 students were awarded Collegiate Scholarship. In 1960, Dr. Thane Oke Kyaw Myint (who stood 6th in Burma) led the scholarship holders from SPHS. Dr. Than Toe (who stood 99th) was the last Schoalrship holder from SPHS.

In 1963, students from private schools (e.g. SPHS) have to be in the top 40. Students from government schools have to be in the top 100. In 1963, Dr. Khin Maung U (who stood 1st in Burma) led the scholarship holders from SPHS. Dr. Min Oo (2nd), Dr. Myo San (Freddie, 3rd, GBNF), Dr. Nyunt Wai (Victor, 4th), Dr. Thein Wai (5th), U Hla Min (7th), Dr. Aung Kyaw Zaw (Johnny, 9th), U Maung Maung Kyi (11th), U Aung Thu Yein (Brownie, 13th, GBNF) and Dr. Khin Maung Zaw (Frank, 17th) also won the Scholarship. SPHS had five students in the Top Five, seven students in the Top Ten, and ten students in the Top Twenty.

It took a year (or so) to complete the Nationalization of private schools and function them as SHS (State High School). Then, a specified number of top students receive Collegiate Scholarship.

In the 50’s, State Scholars were selected to study undergraduate and graduate studies abroad. The funding was provided by the Burmese government.

Later, some State Scholars received grants from UN organizations, Colombo Plan and others (e.g. Fulbright, Humphrey).

Dr. Yan Naing Lwin wrote :

The Burmese State Scholars numbered some 140 in early 1950 in the US alone. I came to US with 10 other Scholars in 1954-55. Our stipend was US $ 140/ per month.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor had the longest # of Burmese Scholars when I arrived at Illinois. It shifted to Illinois & Purdue University in later years.


There are several aspects of Security.

A Secure Channel is based on the concept that it is difficult if not impossible to access the messages passing through the channel. At one extreme is a dedicated channel with reliable protocols for handshaking (hardware, software) to start a communication session and to maintain the session for a specified period.

A Secure Message adds another level of security (if used with a Secure Channel). A secure message is based on the concept that it should be difficult if not impossible to intercept or access the message and decrypt it within a reasonable time. An assumption is that the value of a message is time-bounded and the system that generates it guarantee the security for a secified period.

If the sensitive data in the repository (data base, servers) and the media can be “disguised” (using cryptography …), yet another level of security can be achieved.

Securing data requires time, resource and adherence to privacy rules, ethics. Even some large corporations (e.g. which maintain credit scores) are lax in guarding the information of their employees and clients.


At SPHS, the athletes are classified based on height as (a) Senior (b) Junior (c) Junior Junior and (d) Midget.

In Medical school, the lower classes are called 1st MBBS Junior and 1st MBBS Senior.

At RUBC, the Novices competition end with Senior Novices and Junior Novices. In the early years, the winners of Senior Novices event were given a brooch as a bragging right.

At “Thet Kyee Pu Zaw Pwe”, a Senior may be 70 – 80 years old (depending on the sponsors and funding). e.g. 70+ for UCC sayas and sayamas

U Tin Htut (Harry, Mon Yu) was not eligible for the “Sar Yay Saya PU Zaw Pwe) because he has not turned 80.

In most countries, Senior Citizens are provided some benefits and assistance.

In the USA, there are several definitions of “Senior”.
(a) The government usually considers 65+ year olds as Senior.
(b) Some shops and restaurants might lower the bar to 60+
(c) Some “Senior Centers” and AARP accept 50+
(d) For marketing purpose, (b) and (c) prefer to have not so old Seniors that can participate in their programs.

For bus (and may be light rail in some counties), a Senior pays
(a) one dollar for one way
(b) 3$ for one day
(c) 30$ for one month
(d) 330$ for one year

Some have Sr. as a suffix in their name. e.g. Thomas J Watson Sr.

So Ka Yay Tee

“So Ka Yay Tee” is synonymous with “Ah Nu Pyinnya Ah Thin”.

Rangoon University has a “Ah Nu Pyinnya Ah Thin”. Saya Dr. Maung Maung Kha and Saya U Ba Kyi are Patrons. Saya Kha would play the violin and accompany U Ba Kyi singing “Only Two” (Hna Yauk Hte Nay Chin De).

Under the then New Education System, Institutes (such as IM, RIT, Eco, Edu) were established. Most of them have “Ah Nu Pyinnya Ah Thin”.

RIT Ah Nu Pyinnya Ah Thin held musical evening extravaganza (“Geeta See Sar”). RIT Ah Nu Pyinnya Ah Thin had a powerful presence at the 1970 RU Golden Jubilee Celebrations. It featured Swel Daw Yeik Ah Nyeint and Htee Yein.

Saya U Moe Aung (Tekkatho Moe War), Saya U Saw Tun (Saw Lu), Saya U Kyaw Sein (M65), Saya U Taing Oke (ChE69), and Saya U Khin Maung Tint (C69) are some of the driving forces for the outstanding performances by the Zat Sayas, Minthas, Minthamees, Lushwindaws, and the talented cast members.

The Pon Chan Chan also helped find soul mates.

  • Don Min U Yu Swan and Sayama Emma Tin Tin Myint
  • U Tin Tun and Daw Mar Mar Yee
  • Saya U Khin Maung Tint and Sayama Daw Khin Sandar Tun


There is a saying, “Speech is silver. Silence golden.”

It does not mean we should stay silent all the time. If one does not have meaningful things to say, it is better to remain silent rather than rambling or engaging in “frivolous talk”.

The length of a speech varies.

There are Elevator speeches (lasting less than a minute), Impromptu Speech (e.g. Table Topics lasting one or two minutes), Icebreakers (lasting four to six minutes), Prepared Speeches (lasting a specified time : typically five to seven minutes), TED and TEDx talks (lasting about 18 minutes), Keynote speeches (45 – 60 minutes with Q&A).

President Abraham Lincoln was requested to give a “few appropriate remarks” at Gettysburg. His address consisted of ten sentences. It was delivered in less than two minutes (which was not long enough for the official photographer to record the historic moment).

The message is important than the messenger. The speaker should provide a “take away” or an “action item”.

During our younger days, I had a book of the 40+ speeches given by notable people (e.g. Winston Churchill).

Rotary Club, Kiwani’s Club and Toastmasters International provide guidance and training for communication.

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is known for “The Last Lecture”, where a Professor presents to an audience (e.g. those present for his forthcoming Retirement). Randy Pausch, who was diagnosed with Cancer, gave an up-lifting “The Last Lecture”. It can be viewed on You Tube. It has also been made into a book.

Steve Jobs gave a Commencement Speech at Standford University. It can be viewed on the Internet. In three parts, he connected the dots (e.g. taking a Calligraphy course to the aesthetic Font designs on Apple Computers.


My parents decided to transfer me to SPHS (St. Paul’s High School) after passing Third Standard from PPBRS (Private Primary Boundary Road School). My brother was then studying for his Matriculation in SPHS.

SPHS has some unpublished rules. The Brothers prefer students to start from KG, or at least transfer from their affiliated Catholic Schools. The applicant should have a relative who is a current or Old Paulian. Even though I placed second in PPBRS, I was admitted to St. IV(D). After doing well in IV(D), V(D), VI(D) and VII(D), I was permitted to join Section (A). I attended VIII(D), IX(D) and X(D).

My class teachers at SPHS were
IVD : Mrs. A Benjamin
VD: Mrs. Violet Boudville
VID: Saya U Pe Maung Tin
VIID: Saya Nge
VIIIA: Brother Anthony
IXA: Brother Xavier
XA: Brother Austin

Dr. Thane Oke Kyaw Myint wrote :

I also joined at IVD, moving from St Philomena’ boy school (across the road from Convent). Like you wrote you start with D, then worked your way up to A. Our class teacher was Mrs Benjamin, who had to teach newcomers and plodders from earlier SPHS classes. Once when she was upset with us she shouted “Do you all know that IV D is the waste basket of St Paul’s?“. Nice to know that you were in IV D like me at the start.


Statistics may stand for COSPAD —

  • Collecting
  • Organizing
  • Summarizing
  • Presenting, and
  • Analyzing Data.

One classification lists (a) Parametric Statistics (b) Non-Parametric Statistics.

Statistics became a Department at the Faculty of Social Science. Dr. Sundrum was an early Professor.

U Htin Kyaw (former President) and U Tun Shwe transferred from the Statistics Department at the Institute of Economics to become Application Programmers at UCC.

Statistic used to mean an item of measurement or information. Datum used to be the singular form of Data.

There are “Measures of Central Tendency” — Mean, Median and Mode.

There are Distributions, e.g. Uniform Distribution, Binomial Distribution.

There are Statistical Tests. The tests use “significance level” to accept or reject a hypothesis. There may be Positive and Negative Errors.

An early program is called SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science).

Several programming languages have libraries, modules and functions to perform statistical calculations and tests.

An old joke: “Have you heard about the Statistician who was drowned while trying to cross a river with an average of three feet?”


Stipend may stand for Financial Aid. There may be terms (e.g. agree to work for a specified period after getting the degree).

In the 50’s, Military Stipends were given to eligible students studying Medicine and Engineering. The graduates join the Military as Commissioned Officers.

During our University days, Stipend holders receive 75 Kyats per month. The amount is the same as received by the Collegiate Scholarship winners. The net is 60 Kyats per month since the Tuition fees is 15 Kyats per month.

The stipend was sufficient even for students who have to live in hostels. The hostel fees was 57 Kyats.

Several US universities provide “Free Tuition” to eligible students. A few US universities provide Free Board and Lodging & Free Tuition to eligible students.

Dr. Yan Naing Lwin wrote :

When I started teaching at WIU in 1965, a few Burmese students started to arrive in Illinois. They were graduate students of RU, RIT & IM (Institute of Medicine).

They pursed their graduate study as GA (Graduate Teaching Assistant) or RA (Research Assistant). Their tuition was free & their stipends varied from $ 300/- to $ 600/- per month. Many hundreds have passed through WIU (Western Illinois University) & all of them are very successful. I think it was their previous background, their hard work, their ambitions, & camaraderie that existed among them!


TAG may stand for “Technology and Architecture Group”.

TAG may stand for “Tun Aung Gyaw” or “Tom Aung Gyaw”.

Tag mean mean a label.

In Facebook, tagging a post makes a copy to the Timeline of the person being tagged. There are pros and cons for using FB tags.

In FB, the individuals in a photo may be tagged. There are pros and cons for using FB photo tags.

Some algorithms used by FB to process photo tags have “features”. e.g. I had a photo with U Osadha, a resident monk at Dhammananda Vihara. FB asked me to tag Ashin Pannagavesaka (Uzin Bobby Myo Tun, A69) even though Uzin was not present in the picture. The algorithms do not handle the case correctly for Theravada Buddhist monks.

In the early days, there is game called “Tag”.

There used to be Rag Tag Bands.


The general meaning of Thesaurus is a “Treasure” or “Treasury”.

Dr. Peter Mark Roget compiled a Thesaurus of English words based on his system of classification.

A Thesaurus complements a Dictionary.

One looks up a Dictionary when one knows a word and wants to find out the meaning(s).

One looks up a Thesaurus when one has an idea or a concept, and wants to find out the right word.

Over the years, both have evolved and even converged.

One Thesaurus is arranged in Dictionary form for ease of look up.

Advanced Dictionaries include synonyms, antonyms and usage

There are Editors and Word Processors with built-in dictionary and thesaurus.

There is a “Visual Thesaurus” where one can start with a word and follow the links.


Tie may stand for Draw.
e.g. The match ended in a 1-1 Tie (or Draw).

In the early days, the winner of a soccer game [in a round robin or league play] earns 2 points. The loser does not earn points. Teams share 1 point for a tied game. Conservative teams tend to play defensively to tie games rather than losing.

In the later days, the winner of a soccer game earns 3 points. The loser does not earn points. Team share 1 point for a tied game. The scheme was introduced to incentivize offensive plays.

Tie Breaker

Some sports do not like to have Joint Champions. They have rules to break ties (known as Tie Breakers).

In Weight Lifting, the tie breaker winner is the one with a lower body weight.

In High Jump and Pole Vault, the tie breaker winner is the one with the less misses.

In a knock out game in Soccer, a tied game in regulation time goes into overtime. If the overtime does not produce a winner, Penalty Kicks are taken to break the tie.

In ice hockey, a tied game in regulation time goes into overtime. If the overtime does not produce a winner, Penalty Shootouts are taken to break the tie.

In a knock out game in Golf, a tied game after 72 holes goes into a “Sudden Death” play (of one or more extra holes).

In most Tennis championships, a tied set with 6 games each goes into the Tie breaker game (of 12 or more points, with the winner needing two more points). Thus, the final score would be marked 7-6 (followed by the points in the Tie Breaker).

Some Tennis Championships do not allow Tie Breaker in the fifth and final set. Some games with a long set (with 20 or more games) leave the players and viewers exhausted.

No Tie

In Basketball, a tied game continues with one or more overtime.

In Baseball, a tied game continues with one or more extra innings.


AM and PM

  • AM stands for Ante Meridian.
  • PM stands for Post Meridian.
  • A day consists of 12 hours for AM, and 12 hours for PM.
  • Some missed schedules (e.g. flights) due to the AM/PM confusion.
  • Some medicine (e.g. pain relievers) to be taken in the evening and night has PM in the name.


Military time uses the 24 hour notation.

Daylight Savings Time

  • Daylight Savings Time (DST) is a controversial topic for a long time.
  • In the US, some states do not implement DST.
  • “Spring Forward. Fall Back” has some truth.
  • Legislation changes have moved the start and end dates for DST.
  • Some say that DST does not save energy, and the laws should be repealed.

Other Systems

Some ancient Burmese Kingdoms employed the 60-hour day using the “water” clock. Day time can range from 24 to 36 hours. Ditto for Evening & Night time.

Some early civilizations use the Sun Dial.

The use of atomic clocks has to be supplemented by smart algorithms for idiosyncrasies introduced by DST, Leap second (to name a few).

Depending on the culture, the Day of Week may start on a Sunday or a Monday.

There are numerous software libraries dealing with Calendars, Dates, Times and Holidays.

U Khin Maung Zaw (EC76) wrote :

DST in US, especially at the Spring time when the clock moves an hour ahead (Spring Forward), always have some good stories. Some years back we used to have a large group of people playing soccer on Sunday early mornings, as is called pickup games. It never failed to see people showed up late, forgot to reset the clock, every year. Thank God! The change was on Sundays, or else there would be more interesting work-related stories.

Microsoft Windows have those dates usually baked into the system, as a result when the DST was extended 2008, they had to release a patch to fix the issue.


In our younger days, we were delighted to know that “most doors [in some parts of Yamethin] were left open at night”. It was an indication of a high level of trust among people.

Later, we saw guarded windows and doors (with multiple locks) in most places. It might indicate a deterioration of trust among people.

Trust also eroded in the USA. In addition to the locks, there are security cameras and recording systems to deter vandalism and thefts.

In some places, car windows are broken to take away valuables in the car. Restaurants place signs “Do not leave valuables in your car”.

Back in the days of our parents and grand parents, one is sure to get back a misplaced item. My friend (Ko Patrick) remembered that his father left a hat at Rangoon Turf Club and he found it untouched on his “preferred” seat the next week.

Around the world, more people lost trust in banking corporations and investment firms after being hit by Ponzi schemes and variants.

The use of simple passwords has given way to longer pass phrases that are harder to crack.

Login to computer systems prefer multi-factor authentication (e.g. bio-metrics). The computer sends back a code to be used for verification. Even then, no system that has a “back door” is safe forever. It may be safe for a specified period of time.

Companies track the activities of their employees. Essentially, no one is to be trusted fully in the modern age with a gazillion of malicious schemes.

A different view of trust has evolved. People check feedback (e.g. on Yelp) to decide if a product or service is trustworthy. How much does an average person trust a room-sharing service or a ride-sharing service or a “friend” on an Internet Chat.


Uniform may stand for “one form“.


Some schools may mandate their students to wear uniform on specified days (and may be every day).

Grapevine says that Bogyoke Aung San and U Thant had a debate on Uniform (during their University days).

During our younger days, we had to perform drill at (a) the Annual Sports at School Sports and (b) at the Aung San Stadium for specified events (e.g. Education Day Celebration). We had to dress up in uniform.

A uniform specifies items (some of which are mandatory)

  • Short or long pants (e.g. Kakki)
  • Shirt (e.g. long sleeved white shirt)
  • Necktie
  • Badge
  • Coat
SPHS Uniform

There could be alternatives : Pasoe (or Longyi), Taik Pon and Gaung Baung for the Burmese dress.

The full uniform is worn at formal functions (e.g. Award Presentation Ceremony).

Sayagyi U Ba Hli, Dean of Engineering, is seen in photos wearing a uniform.

Those joining UTC (Universities’ Training Corps) are given two sets of [usually old] uniforms. Most prefer to buy or order their own.

UTC Uniform

RUBC (Rangoon University Boat Club) awards Half Green, Full Green and Gold. RUBC specifies Dress Code for the award winners.

RUBC Uniform

In the USA, sports team have at least two sets of uniforms : one for playing at Home, and another for playing elsewhere.

Used in my posts

  • A or Arch : Architecture
  • AFAIK : As Far As I Know
  • AFPFL : Anti Fascist Peoples’ Freedom League
  • Ag or M/Ag : Agricultural (sub-department of Mechanical)
  • AGM : Annual General Meeting
  • AI : Artificial Intelligence
  • ASAP : As Soon As Possible
  • Auto or M/Auto : Automobile (sub-department of Mechanical)
  • BA or B.A : Bachelor of Arts
  • BAA : Burma Athletic Association
  • BARB : Burma Astro Research Bureau
  • BS or B.Sc : Bachelor of Science
  • BFF : Best Friends Forever
  • BIT : Burma Institute of Technology
  • BSPP : Burmese Socialist Program Party
  • C : Civil
  • ChE : Chemical
  • Chem : Chemistry
  • COE : Center of Excellence
  • ConBro : Convent and Brother Schools
  • CS : Computer Science
  • CT : Computer Technology
  • DAC : Diploma in Automatic Computing
  • DCA : Directorate of Civil Aviation
  • DCS : Department of Computer Science
  • DG : Director General
  • Dio : Diocesan
  • DST : Daylight Savings Time
  • E : Electrical
  • EC : Electrical Communications
  • EC : Executive Committee
  • Eco : Economics
  • EE : Electrical Engineering
  • EI : Electrical Inspectorate
  • EP : Electrical Power
  • EQ : Emotional Quotient
  • Engg : Engineering
  • FDA : Food and Drug Administration
  • GBNF : Gone But Not Forgotten
  • GTI : Government Technical Institute
  • GJ : Golden Jubilee (Shwe YaDu)
  • HCF : Health Care Fund
  • HMEE : History of Myanmar Engineering Education
  • HSF : High School Final
  • I.A : Intermediate of Arts
  • I.Com : Intermediate of Commerce
  • ICST : Institute of Computer Science and Technology
  • IFL : Institute of Foreign Languages
  • ILA : Intelligence Level Aggregate
  • IM (1) : Institute of Medicine (1)
  • Intake : mostly 1st BE Intake
  • IP : Intellectual Property
  • IQ : Intelligence Quotient
  • I.Sc : Intermediate of Science
  • KG : Kindergarten
  • LSE : London School of Economics
  • M : Mechanical
  • Matric : Matriculation
  • MARB : Myanmar Astro Research Bureau
  • MASU : Mandalay Arts and Science University
  • MEHS : Methodist English High School
  • Met : Metallurgy
  • Min : Mining
  • MS or M.Sc : Master of Science
  • NLD : National League for Democracy
  • NorCal RITAA : Northern California RIT Alumni Association
  • PBRS : Private Boundary Road School
  • Pet : Petroleum
  • PPBRS : Private Primary Boundary Road School
  • PZP : Pu Zaw Pwe
  • Q&A : Question and Answer
  • RASU : Rangoon Arts and Science University
  • RGC : Rangoon Golf Club
  • RIT : Rangoon Institute of Technology
  • RIT69er : Class of 69++
  • RITAA : RIT-YIT-YTU Alumni Association
  • RU : Rangoon University
  • RUBC : Rangoon University Boat Club
  • RUESU : Rangoon University Engineering Students’ Union
  • RUSU : Rangoon University Students’ Union
  • SDY : Swel Daw Yeik
  • SDYF : Swel Daw Yeik Foundation
  • SEAP : South East Asian Peninsular
  • SJC : St. John’s Convent
  • SPHS : Saint Paul’s High School
  • SPZP : Saya Pu Zaw Pwe
  • T or Tex : Textile
  • UCC : Universities’ Computer Center
  • UCSY : University of Computer Studies Yangon
  • UCT : Universal Coordinated Time
  • Update : RIT Alumni International Newsletter Update
  • UTC : University Training Corps
  • YIT : Yangon Institute of Technology
  • YTU : Yangon Technological University
  • YUFL : Yangon University of Foreign Languages



Yadaya stands for Change. Yadaya is similar to fire. It can be a good slave or a bad master.

U Myint Sein

According to U Myint Sein (GBNF), former Principal of BARB, ladies are excellent at Yadaya. They change their appearance (e.g. with the aid of cosmetics).


According to folk lore, a student went to study at Tekkatho (Tekka Sila) to study under Ditha Par Mauk Kha (Professor). The professor was an expert in Veda. He saw that some calamity (probably death) will fall soon on the student. So, he told the student to return to the village for a while and come back at a later date.

The student did some good deeds on the way back. He moved some fishes from an almost empty pond to nearby stream. He pruned the hanging branches and righted some bent trees. He used some planks to create a make-shift bridge.

On his subsequent visit, the student told the Professor about his actions on the way back to his village. The Professor was pleased to know that the student’s Yadaya had thwarted the ill effects.

Extreme belief in Yadaya

The following may be attributed to some then higher authorities who believe too much in the power of Yadaya.

A classmate told us that there was a night walk on Minn Lann by the high authorities. The lights were out during the walk. Some other events (e.g. the construction of Karaweik) allude to a Kingdom.

The change to Nyar Lann Maung without making revisions to the road and the vehicles may be a Yadana to simulate a change to the right (from left [or Socialist]).

The issue of bank notes such as 45 Kyats and 90 Kyats may be due to the belief of Nawin or “Nines”.

The issue of bank notes honoring Saya San and Thakin Po Hla Gyi may be a Yadana to simulate the revolutionaries throughout the nation, and thereby thwart revolutions.

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