Correlation and Causation


  • In Probability and Statistics, one has to determine if two variables have positive, negative or zero correlation.
  • Two variables are said to be positively correlated if both go up and down together.
  • Two variations are said to be negatively correlated if one goes up when the other goes down (and vice versa).
  • Two variables are said to be zero (no) correlation, if there is no significant trend.


  • Some confuse Correlation with Causation.
  • Correlated variables may or may not be related as “Cause and Effect”.
  • For example, we hear, “My friend has lung cancer. He does not smoke.”

The early experiments show some Correlation between Heavy Smoking and Lung Cancer.

There are parameters in Smoking

  • cigar, cigarette, e-cigarette, cheroot, …
  • frequency
  • quantity
  • deep inhalation
  • second hand smoke


  • There are Solar and Eclipses every year.
  • Some occur in places we cannot see.
  • There are Total and Partial Eclipses.
  • Some fear when there are Eclipses.
  • Eclipses are natural phenomena.
    They do not cause bad events to happen.
  • “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.”

Categories: Uncategorized

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s