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Number Systems

Roman Number System

Base Numerals

  • I (for one)
  • V (for 5)
  • X (for 10)
  • L (for 50)
  • C (for 100)
  • D (for 500)
  • M (for 1000)

Rules

If a lesser weighted symbol appears to the left of a larger weighted symbol, the lower value is subtracted from the higher value.
Examples : IV (5 -1 = 4), XC (100 – 10 = 90)


If a lesser weighted symbol appears to the right of a larger weighted symbol, the lower value to added to the higher value.
Examples : VII (5 + 1 + 1 = 7), CXX (100 + 10 + 10 = 120)

Drawbacks

It is difficult to perform arithmetic operations.

It is not easy to read large Roman numbers. Movie companies supposedly use Roman numbers in their copyright dates so that the audience could not quickly figure out if a movie is too old.

Hindu-Arabic System

Digits

In the Decimal system, there are ten digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and most importantly 0 (Zero).

“The Dawn of Nothing” emphasizes the introduction of Zero thereby allowing the positional system of representing numbers.

Advantages


It has several advantages over the Roman Number System.

  • Compact representation
  • Ease of performing arithmetic operations.

Number systems in Mathematics

  • Integers (Positive, Zero, Negative)
  • Real Numbers (Positive, Zero, Negative)
  • Complex Numbers (with Real Part and Imaginary Part)

Some Bases

  • Base 10 : Decimal (Most common)
  • Base 2 : Binary (Used in computers)
  • Base 3 : Ternary
  • Base 4
  • Base 8 : Octal
  • Base 16 : Hexadecimal
  • Base 60 (e.g. Minutes & Seconds for angles & time)
  • Mixed Base (e.g. most old British measures)

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