The Scriptures describe 40 kinds of Meditation.
The methods generally fall into
- Samatha (Concentration Meditation)
- Vipassana (Insight Meditation)
In Samatha, one chooses a “Meditation Object”. In the early days, some practitioners chose a white or colored disk (Kasina) as a Meditation Object. By fixing one’s eyes and thoughts on the Meditation Object, one can develop Concentration.
Some practitioners chose “Ana Pana” (Out-breath and In-breath). For example, one can note the direction, direction and hardness/softness of the breath.
One may attain one level of more Jhana (Absorption).
- various ways of seeing
- seeing things as they truly are.
A practitioner may choose a Primary Object for the meditation session. Depending on the tradition of the Mediation Master, the Primary Object can be a nostril, nge dait (part of the head), abdomen, or the body (e.g. touching the mat or floor).
Then, one practices one of the “Four Foundations of Mindfulness” by being aware of the Kaya (Physicality), Vedana (Feelings), Citta (Mind) and Dhamma (General artifacts for meditation).
One may practice Meditation using one of four postures.
One may be able to experience (a) Nama and Rupa (b) Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta (c) the stages of development ultimately leading to Liberation.
In the West, some people try Meditation (a) to experience relaxation and tranquility (b) as an alternative medical treatment (allowed by some Health Insurance).