Updated : August 5, 2019
Dukkha is a Pali word.
There are several forms of Dukkha.
- Dukkha Dukkha
- Sukha Dukkha
- Uppekha Dukkha
They express “unsatisfactoriness” associated with
- Suffering or Misery
- [Seemingly] Pleasant feelings
Note that the Burmese term “Sin Ye Dhukkha” covers only Dukkha Dukkha.
- Most understand Dukkha to mean Suffering.
This led many to believe that Buddhism teaches pessimism.
- Some Sayadaws and Dhamma teachers point out that Buddha was not an Optimist or a Pessimist, but that he was a Realist.
- In the Four Noble Truths, he described not only “Suffering” (or Unsatisfactorines), but its Cause and Remedy.
Practicing the Eight-fold Path can lead to Liberation from Samsara (Rounds of Rebirth).
- There is an on-line course which covers Dhammacakka and Anatta Lekkana Suttas and analyzes them from several aspects (Psychology and Philosophy).