Updated : August 5, 2019

Dukkha is a Pali word.

There are several forms of Dukkha.

  • Dukkha Dukkha
  • Sukha Dukkha
  • Uppekha Dukkha

They express “unsatisfactoriness” associated with

  • Suffering or Misery
  • [Seemingly] Pleasant feelings
  • Equanimity

Note that the Burmese term “Sin Ye Dhukkha” covers only Dukkha Dukkha.


  • Most understand Dukkha to mean Suffering.
    This led many to believe that Buddhism teaches pessimism.
  • Some Sayadaws and Dhamma teachers point out that Buddha was not an Optimist or a Pessimist, but that he was a Realist.
  • In the Four Noble Truths, he described not only “Suffering” (or Unsatisfactorines), but its Cause and Remedy.
    Practicing the Eight-fold Path can lead to Liberation from Samsara (Rounds of Rebirth).
  • There is an on-line course which covers Dhammacakka and Anatta Lekkana Suttas and analyzes them from several aspects (Psychology and Philosophy).

Categories: Terms

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